Questions and answers

What are our skin consist of? What is the skin structure?


Human skin

 

What is necessary for serum to be effective?


Molecule size

Molecule size Molecule of the active ingredient must be of a size less than 150 000 Dn to penetrate through the stratum corneum of the skin.


Lipophility

LipophilityMolecule need to be ‘’fat friendly’’ to penetrate into the skin, because it has no chance to move inside due to thin fat layer on the skin surface. Therefore special compounds are widely used to Increase lipophility for example of peptides, significantly enhances its ability to penetrate through the stratum corneum.


Molecule polarity

Molecule polarityMolecules of the active substances must be neutral by electrical charge to penetrate into the skin. For example neutralization of the charge of the peptides (many peptides are charged molecules that prevent them from passing the stratum corneum) by adding the lipophilic counter-ion. The result is a pair ion, bonded by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Such a pair is neutral and lipophilic enough to penetrate deep into the matrix through the stratum corneum.

 

Peptides. What is that?


Peptides
  • Short chains of amino acids
  • Have specific properties and proven biological activity
  • Have small size (less than 50 nanometers)
Functions of peptides
  • Stimulate the formation of collagen and prevent the formation of cross-links;
  • Increase the elasticity of the skin;
  • Reduce inflammation and stimulate regeneration processes;
  • Promotes the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans;
  • Contribute to the restoration of blood circulation;
  • Activate superoxide dismutase (SOD);
  • Enhance the natural antioxidant defense mechanisms;
  • Supervise melanogenesis (formation of melanin).
  • Muscle contractions inhibition and activation
 

What is Argilerine?


Argireline — is the peptide (relatively new class of substances in cosmetic compositions), which inhibits facial muscles contraction.

Molecule of argilerine operates by presynaptic mechanism (this way muscle is not completely blocked as with botulinum toxin) and being inserted between the two nerves prevents them from touching and hence there is no transmission of nerve impulses = no muscle contraction = no mimic wrinkles.

Its effect is cumulative. For Argereline pH inside the cosmetic container have not be lower than 4.